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PTB’s  technical role in this project will focus on the development of uncertainty evaluation methods for VEs in conjunction with measurement data. Method development will be accomplished with a focus on the TWI and FLOW applications. The department “Heat and Vacuum” operates several test facilities, which provide well‑controlled flow conditions and low uncertainty reference meters. Besides the installation of the flow meters, laser‑optical measurements can also be performed to provide reliable validation data for the VEs. In the department “Imaging and Wave Optics” a TWI, a high accuracy radius measurement bench, and several optical form measuring instruments are available. In addition, the department “Mathematical Modelling and Data Analysis” has a track record in uncertainty evaluation, statistical data analysis and VEs. Furthermore, PTB is a member of JCGM WG1, which is responsible for the JCGM:GUM and its supplements. PTB will coordinate this project and will participate in all WPs (leading WP1 and WP6).  

Contact persons: Sonja Schmelter, Manuel Marschall, Ines Fortmeier, Martin Straka


FFII has its own high voltage laboratory (LCOE), with over 70 years of experience in high voltage and high current testing, calibration and measuring techniques. Furthermore, FFII has experience in several European R&D projects. During the last twenty years, FFII has developed and validated new software tools for the characterisation of the electrical grid’s behaviour, together with calibration procedures for reference voltage and current measurements. With this knowledge, FFII will contribute to WP2,WP3, and  WP4.

Contact persons: Abderrahim Khamlichi, Fernando Garnacho, Jorge Rovira


GUM, the NMI of Poland, maintains, improves and disseminates the national measurement standards. Its main task is to ensure the conformity, accuracy and traceability of the national measurement standards. The Precise Geometric Measurements Laboratory of the Time and Length Metrology Department will take part in this project. It carries out measurements in the fields of length, coordinate measurement, roughness and roundness. In  WP1, GUM will contribute by assessing compliance with the JCGM:GUM for the chosen methods, by developing methods for evaluating the uncertainty associated with real measurements for CMMs using the results from the corresponding virtual experiments and by taking part in the development of a GPG. In WP3, GUM will contribute by compiling a list of error and uncertainty sources in VEs that should be addressed in the validation procedure. In the scope of WP4, GUM will contribute by setting‑up a time schedule, by organising the circulation of the selected reference artefact and an unknown industrial freeform artefact and by actively witnessing the progress of the measurements within the case study related to the CMM application.

Contact person: Adam Wójtowicz


LNE will investigate and implement an advanced robust hybrid‑DT for the developed primary cylindricity measurement machine, which is accurate to the nanometre (WP2). The validation of the implemented DT and the uncertainty estimation will be studied in WP3. LNE’s skills on uncertainty estimation, based on Monte‑Carlo and Bayesian methods, will also be shared with the participants in WP1. LNE will conduct a case study on cylindricity measurement on a selected piston/cylinder assembly in close collaboration with GEOMNIA (WP4). Furthermore, a bilateral collaboration between both the dimensional and the mathematical/statistical departments will be organised with the aim of delivering a high level of science in this project. LNE will lead WP4 and will contribute to WP1, WP2 and WP3.

Contact persons: Hichem Nouira, Nicolas Fischer


VSL’s technical role in this project will focus on the development of methods to quantify the measurement uncertainty using VEs, and on their validation. Method development will be accomplished with a focus on the VCMM and FLOW applications. VSL’s recent research activities also include investigating the use of machine learning techniques for metrological applications. VSL’s staff have expertise in uncertainty evaluation, data science, machine learning, CMMs and gas and liquid flow measurements. VSL was/is a participant in many European projects. VSL will lead WP3 and will contribute to WP1, WP2 and WP4.

Contact persons: Federica Gugole, Gertjan Kok, Menne Schakel


VTT, the NMI in Finland, has expertise in both tactile and optical coordinate metrology. At VTT there is also expertise in other fields that are relevant to this project such as robotics, manufacturing technology, and the evaluation of lifetime based on fatigue analysis using FEM and geometry data. In the project, VTT will demonstrate how the above-mentioned skills and methods can be useful for end users in the transport sector. VTT will lead WP5 and will contribute to WP1, WP2, WP3 and WP4.

Contact persons: Björn Hemming, Linus Teir


ENS Paris‑Saclay (Ecole Normale Supérieure Paris‑Saclay) is a founding member of Paris‑Saclay University. The research and development carried within this project will be developed at the Automated Production Research Laboratory (LURPA). The laboratory's scientific activities mainly focus on geometrical product specification and verification, multi‑sensor dimensional metrology, geometry processing and data analytics in dimensional metrology. LURPA will bring new knowledge and contributions for metrology data analytics, uncertainty quantification and geometry processing algorithms to create smart knowledge systems for metrology, and manufacturing‑related DTs. ENS Paris‑Saclay will contribute to WP1, WP2, WP3 and WP4.

Contact persons: Nabil Anwer, Charyar Mehdi-Souzani


IDEKO is a Spanish Technology Centre, which is close to the industry. In addition to their knowledge about DTs, the Precision Design and Engineering department provides a practical point of view of the project’s research and how to explain its benefits to the industry. IDEKO’s experience in the development of DTs for the industry will enable them to demonstrate the project’s outputs to the end users in an attractive way. IDEKO will contribute to WP1, WP2, WP3 and WP4.

Contact persons: Pablo Puerto, Sara Mata, Gorka Aguirre


INTI is the NMI of Argentina. In this project, INTI will contribute to the development of uncertainty evaluation and validation methods for VEs and DTs in relation to the virtual calibration of digital multimeters, electrical quantum standards and in the field of high voltage tests. INTI will contribute to WP1, WP2, WP3 and WP4.

Contact persons: Ricardo Iuzzolino, Guillermo Schneider, Juan Carlos Suares Baron, Matías Aguirre


PK (Politechnika Krakowska) has extensive long‑term experience in the implementation of digital‑metrological twins (virtual models) of coordinate measuring systems for the on‑line determination of the measurement uncertainty of mainly tactile CMMs, but recently also for optical CMMs. PK researchers have also implemented a fully functional virtual model of an articulated arm CMM and they adapted one of their VCMM models for use in industrial conditions (it was implemented in one of the global enterprises from the automotive industry). PK will contribute to WP1, WP3 and WP4.

Contact person: Adam Gąska


The research unit at POLITO (Politecnico di Torino) will provide the consortium with a strong background in statistical process control, quality engineering and industrial metrology. The research unit’s most recent research has focused on the application of artificial intelligence methods for the geometric and mechanical characterisation of technological surfaces, and on the development of simulation approaches for calibration and uncertainty evaluation based on physical and data‑driven modelling of the measurement system. The research unit at POLITO will participate in WP2, WP3 and WP4 by providing access to state‑of‑the‑art facilities. POLITO will lead WP2 on the uncertainty evaluation for DTs. The research unit will have a core role in developing the DT for nanoindentation measurements in strict collaboration with UNIPD.

Contact person: Maurizio Galetto


TEKNIKER’s research group is focused on advanced manufacturing. They integrate metrological knowledge and solutions (technologies, procedures, calibrations, standards) into different manufacturing steps and processes. Moreover, TEKNIKER’s metrology lab offers certified measurement and calibration services to the industry for different technologies (tactile, optical). In both fields, modelling and simulation are used to design and support the best deployment of technology. Modelling is based on different strategies and tools (analytical, numerical, DTs, etc.) and it is a key approach to assess uncertainty and to improve different measuring processes such as the ones aimed at in this project (traceable 3D robotic measurement). Outcomes and experience from previous projects will be applied and exploited in this project. TEKNIKER will contribute to WP2, WP3 and WP4.

Contact persons: Iker Garmendia, Gorka Kortaberria, Ahmed Brahim


UNIPD (Università degli Studi di Padova) performs research in the area of Precision Manufacturing, with a focus on coordinate metrology and instrumented nanoindentation. Research topics include on‑machine and in‑process metrology, the sustainable finishing of manufactured surfaces and related advanced surface characterisation. Relevant equipment: contact and multisensor CMMs, WLI/confocal/FV 3D profiler, SEM with EBSD and EDX detectors, and a nanoindentation platform to perform high‑speed mechanical property mapping. UNIPD will contribute to developing and validating the DT for nanoindentation measurements. UNIPD participated in various EU metrology research and training projects. UNIPD will contribute to WP1, WP2, WP3 and WP4.

Contact persons: Enrico Savio, Rachele Bertolini


UPM has its own high voltage laboratory (LAT‑UPM) with over 15 years of experience in high voltage testing and measuring techniques. Moreover, this university has participated in various European R&D projects. LAT‑UPM is a reference European research centre dedicated mainly to the development and improvement of technologies for the evaluation of the condition of electrical systems. With this knowledge, UPM will contribute to WP2, WP3 and WP4.

Contact persons: Fernando Álvarez, Abderrahim Khamlichi, Carlos E. González-Guillén, David Luengo, Eduardo Arcones, Ricardo Granizo


DUI (Dutch United Instruments) designs and manufactures fast and accurate measurement machines for the non‑contact measurement of the form of large and complex aspherical and freeform optics. DUI was founded in 2017 and is part of the Demcon Group. The NMF machines are based on the famous NANOMEFOS technology of TNO and are available in measurement volumes ranging from 350 mm to 1000 mm in diameter. DUI has its headquarters in Delft (NL) and has systems installed worldwide. DUI NMF machines are generally regarded as the most accurate and versatile measurement instruments for freeform optics. DUI will contribute to WP1, WP3 and WP4.

Contact person: Rens Henselmans


FLEXIM is a Berlin‑based flow meter manufacturer that operates worldwide. It is one of the technology leaders in clamp‑on ultrasonic flow measurement. Besides manufacturing measuring devices, FLEXIM also provides customer‑driven solutions and services, such as on‑site measurements, lab analysis and consulting services. FLEXIM will be particularly active in WP3 by providing flow meters and by supporting their operation on PTB’s test rigs. This will be essential for the calibration of the VEs. Furthermore, FLEXIM will conduct measurements for one of the case studies in WP4 at a customer's facility and they will apply the virtual flow meter in parallel. FLEXIM will contribute to WP3 and WP4.

Contact persons: Bernhard Funck, Christian Höhne


GEOMNIA develops and delivers innovative metrology software applications, high‑end measurement devices and engineering solutions in order to provide high geometric quality for products, machines and processes for advanced manufacturing in harsh production environments, where increased complexity, and reduced tolerances, require ever smaller measurement uncertainties, a shorter measuring time, increased information content and production integrated metrology. Therefore, GEOMNIA will be especially active in WP4’s case study on contactless form measurements. GEOMNIA will contribute to WP2, WP3 and WP4.

Contact persons: Nadim El-Hayek, Mohamed Damak


KROHNE is a family‑owned, international company with its headquarters based in Duisburg. One of their fields of expertise is the development and manufacturing of high quality, innovative industrial flow‑ and level meters. KROHNE has extensive worldwide cooperation with universities, institutes and partners to develop leading edge technology. KROHNE will be contributing to WP4 by applying their virtual model of the electromagnetic flow meter to the 3D flow data provided by PTB and VSL. These data are obtained by CFD simulations and high accuracy measurement data in disturbed flow conditions. These results will be compared with real‑life measurements in test rigs. KROHNE will contribute to WP4.

Contact persons: Arthur den Haan, Jankees Hogendoorn


Mahr is a medium‑sized family‑run business that operates worldwide. Their name is traditionally connected with the terms production metrology, quality and innovation. In addition to high‑quality measuring units to test workpiece geometry, high‑precision gear and metering pumps, and high‑precision rotary stroke bearings, as a universal element for mechanical constructions, are essential components of the product program. As an application specialist in the field of production metrology, Mahr solves the metrological tasks of its customers and is the contact partner for all questions related to quality. Mahr will contribute to WP4.

Contact persons: Andreas Beutler, Karsten Roetmann


SICK develops, manufactures and sells ultrasonic gas flow meters for use in custody transfer, and process and emission control markets around the world. SICK uses CFD simulation to develop the flow meters. This includes the design of the flow conditioning elements and quantifying the behaviour of the flow meter in undisturbed and disturbed flow conditions to extract fluid dynamic correction factors. SICK operates a few flow test benches to validate the simulations and the design of the flow meters and to ensure quality during the production of the meters. SICK owns several type approvals according to MID (2014/32/EU) as well as certificates for continuous emission monitoring (EN 14181). SICK will contribute to WP4.

Contact persons: Andreas Ehrlich, Mario Künzelmann


TUBITAK is the NMI of Türkiye. They have expertise in the implementation of the Josephson standards in voltage measurements. In this project, TUBITAK will contribute to the development of the DT of the 10 V programmable Josephson Voltage Standard (PJVS); they will specify the requirements for the uncertainty evaluation methods (WP2), and they will be involved in the validation of the implemented DT (WP3). In the WP4 industrial case studies, TUBITAK will analyse the uncertainty obtained and they will validate the developed DT(PJVS) in order to optimise the configuration parameters of the physical system.

Contact persons: Mehedin Arifovic, Tezgül Coşkun Öztürk, Naylan Kanatoğlu